Anaphoric Expressions in the Peranakan Javanese of Semarang
Peter Cole, Gabriella Hermon, Yassir Tjung, Chang-Yong Sim, Chonghyuck Kim
In this monograph the properties of the anaphoric expressions found in Peranakan (ethnically Chinese) Javanese as spoken in the city of Semarang are examined. This is the first detailed study of Peranakan Javanese and the first monograph-length examination of anaphora in an Indonesian language. Three types of anaphoric expressions in Peranakan are discussed, true reflexives "pseudo-reflexives" and pronouns. It is shown that the distribution of true reflexives and pronouns conforms to Conditions A and B of the Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981). The third type of anaphoric expression, the pseudo-reflexive, however, appears to constitute a problematic case for the Binding Theory.
Various analyses to account for the peculiar distribution of pseudo-reflexives in Peranakan are considered and it is concluded that pseudo-reflexives are anaphoric forms that are neither pronouns nor reflexives. The distribution of anaphoric expressions in passives, ditransitives, and the sing-construction (relative clauses) is then examined, and analyses for various complications in the binding properties exhibited in these constructions are proposed. Although a semantically-based analysis appears on initial examination to account for the puzzling behavior of anaphoric expressions in the three constructions, it is shown that such an analysis is less adequate than an analysis based on a combination of c-command and semantics. In addition, the use of anaphoric expressions for non-local coreference is examined. The final chapter of the monograph is devoted to comparing anaphoric expressions used in Peranakan and those used in the Javanese variety spoken by Pribumi (ethnically Javanese) speakers. A markedly different anaphoric system is found in the language of Pribumi speakers.
ISBN 9783895860409. LINCOM Studies in Asian Linguistics 72. 156 pp. 2007.