LWM 454: Dhankute Tamang Grammar


LWM 454: Dhankute Tamang Grammar

Artikel-Nr.: ISBN 9783895864889
93,80
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Dhankute Tamang Grammar

Kedar Prasad Poudel
English Department, Mahendra Multiple Campus, Dharan, Nepal

Most Tamang people settle around Kathmandu Valley. Some of them have migrated to the eastern and western hilly regions of the country. Tamang belongs to the Tibeto-Burman branch of Sino-Tibetan language family. Dhankute Tamang spoken in the far eastern district Dhankuta has not been studied so far. The population of Dhankute Tamangs is 11,932 (CBS 2001). Nepali is their lingua franca and medium of education. Its neighboring languages are Limbu, Rai, Magar and Newar.

The general objective of this study is to present a description of a Dhankute Tamang, specifically its phonology, morphology and syntax. This study consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 presents the introductory remarks. Chapter 2 describes the phonology. Chapter 3 deals with the lexicon and Chapter 4 describes the syntax.

This work has been entirely based on the field study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements ii

List of figures and tables
Abbreviations
Chapter 1: Introductory remarks 1
Chapter 2: Tamang phonology 5-38
2.0 Outline 5
2.1 Segmental phonemes 5
2.1.1 Vowels 5
2.1.11 Pure vowels 5
2.1.12 Diphthongs 9
2.1.2 Consonants 10
2.2 Phonotactics 20
2.2.1 Syllable structures 20
2.2.2 Types of syllables 26
2.2.3 Onset consonant clusters 27
2.2.4 Hiatus and onset glides 28
2.2.5 Intervocalic /h/ deletion 29
2.3 Suprasegmental features 30
2.3.1 Juncture 30
2.3.2 Stress 31
2.3.3 Pitch/tone 33
2.3.4 Tone unit 35
2.3.5 Intonation 36
2.3.6 Prosodic lengthening 37
2.4 Conclusion 38
Chapter 3: Lexicon 39-69
3.0 Outline 39
3.1 Tamang words 39
3.1.1 Tibeto-Burman words 39
3.1.2 Borrowed words 40
3.2 Morphological processes 44
3.2.1 Affixation 44
3.2.2 Compounding 59
3.2.3 Reduplication 63
3.2.4 Conversion 68
3.2.3 Abbreviation 68
3.3 Conclusion 69
Chapter 4: The Syntax 70-178
4.0 Outline 70
4.1 Basic sentence 70
4.1.1 Obligatory constituents of basic sentence 70
4.1.2 Basic sentence patterns 71
4.1.3 Constituent order and clause structure 76
iii
4.1.4 Modifications of simple sentences 78
4.1.41 Questions 78
4.1.42 Negation 81
4.2 Noun phrase 83
4.2.1 Forms of noun phrases 83
4.2.2 Functions of noun phrases 84
4.2.3 Sequential occurrence of modifiers 85
4.2.4 Determiner 87
4.2.41 Adjectival determiners 87
4.2.42 Demonstrative determiners 88
4.2.43 Quantifying determiners 89
4.2.44 Genitive determiners 91
4.2.45 Limiting determiners 92
4.2.5 Pronoun 93
4.2.51 Persons 94
4.2.52 Number 94
4.2.53 Exclusive and inclusive pronouns 95
4.2.54 Honorific and non-honorific pronouns 95
4.2.55 Inflections of pronouns 96
4.2.56 Pronominalization 96
4.2.6 Case system 97
4.2.61 Case clitics 97
4.2.62 Stem forms 106
4.2.63 Postpositions 106
4.2.64 Cases and grammatical relations 113
4.2.7 Gender system 114
4.2.71 Types of gender 115
4.2.72 Gender markings 115
4.2.8 Classifier 118
4.2.9 Adjective 119
4.2.91 Formation of adjectives 119
4.2.92 Functions of adjectives 121
4.3 Verb phrase 123
4.3.1 The structure of finite verbal sequence 123
4.3.2 Verb stems 130
4.3.3 Verbal affixes 131
4.3.31 p-group affix alternation 131
4.3.32 b-group affix alternation 131
4.3.33 Imperative mood markers 132
4.3.34 Intransitive and transitive inflections 133
4.3.4 Copular verbs 134
4.3.41 Existential copular verbs 135
4.3.42 Identificational copular verbs 135
4.3.43 Acquisitional copular verbs 136
4.3.5 Complex predicates 136
4.3.6 Tenses 141
4.3.61 Past tense 141
4.3.62 Non-past tense 141
iv
4.3.7 Aspects 146
4.3.71 Progressive aspect 146
4.3.72 Perfect aspect 148
4.3.73 Perfect progressive aspect 149
4.3.8 Moods 151
4.3.81 Indicative mood 151
4.3.82 Imperative mood 153
4.3.83 Hortative mood 153
4.3.84 Optative mood 153
4.3.85 Irrealis mood 154
4.4 Adverb 154
4.4.1 Formation of adverbs 154
4.4.11 Non-derived adverbs 155
4.4.12 Derived adverbs 155
4.4.13 Adverbial phrases 157
4.4.14 Adverbial clauses 157
4.4.2 Positions of adverbs 161
4.4.3 Classification of adverbs 161
4.4.31 Temporal adverbs 161
4.4.32 Locational adverbs 162
4.4.33 Manner adverbs 163
4.4.34 Directional adverbs 163
4.4.35 Degree adverbs 163
4.4.36 Frequency adverbs 164
4.4.37 Sentential adverbs 164
4.5 Clause combining 165
4.5.1 Types of clause combining 165
4.5.11 Subordinate clauses 165
4.5.12 Coordinate clauses 172
4.6 Conclusion 177
References 179

ISBN 9783895864889. Languages of the World/Materials 454. 195pp. 2005.

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