External Traders in the Hinterland of Sofala 1810 – 1889
Kholisile David Dhliwayo
The School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
The organization and significance of external trade in eastern Shona territory consisting of Kisanga, Kiteve and Madanga states is examined from 1810-1899 in relation to the socio-economic and political structures of the eastern Shona and Nguni migrants. The thesis seeks to investigate how the African states regulated trade with the Portuguese based at Sofala and how the latter made efforts to remove what they considered as African restrictions to the flow of trade.
From 1830 to 1839 the eastern Shona territory became a centre of conflict between Nguni groups, the final victors were the Gaza Nguni who succeeded in establishing a state in former Kisanga between 1840 and 1889. As a result the Gaza extended their hostility to the Sofala. Meanwhile the shift in power relations affected the pattern of trade without significantly changing the principles governing the distribution infrastructure. This was the case because the Gaza as well as eastern Shona accepted though grudgingly the Sofalans as the regulating authority on the coast.
Due to increasing Sofalan pressure, the Gaza eventually removed to the lower Limpopo area, leaving the eastern Shona to continue with regular trade with the Sofalans, who by then exercised effective power in the territory.
ISBN 9783862884582. LINCOM Cultural Studies 13. 123pp. 2014.